Uwuqala njani umbutho / iqumrhu elingenzi nzuzo -Inkcazo kunye nemizekelo

Ukuqala kweshishini kunye neenkonzo zokukhusela iiasethi zobuqu.

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Uwuqala njani umbutho / iqumrhu elingenzi nzuzo -Inkcazo kunye nemizekelo

Umbutho ongenaNzuzo

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo zenziwe ngenjongo yokuqhuba imisebenzi kunye nokuthengiselana ngeenjongo ezingezizo inzuzo yabanini zabelo, ngelixa kwangaxeshanye kubonelela ngolondolozo lweeasethi ezifanayo kunye noxanduva olulinganiselweyo kumbutho oqhelekileyo. Umbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo unokwenza inzuzo, kodwa le nzuzo kufuneka isetyenziswe ngokungqongqo ukuhambisa iinjongo kunokubonelela ngeniso eyamkelweyo (ngendlela yezahlulo) kubanini zabelo. Iyaqondakala into yokuba uninzi lwentengiselwano kunye nemisebenzi yequmrhu elingenzi nzuzo ayizukuba yintengiso ngokwendalo.

Amacandelo oMbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo

Umbutho ongenzi nzuzo oququzelelwe phantsi ko-501 (c) 3 weKhowudi yeNgeniso yangaphakathi kufuneka iwele kwelinye okanye nangaphezulu kwezi ndidi zilandelayo:

Thelekisa uMbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo kunye nemibutho efumana inzuzo

Uninzi lweengcali zithathela ingqalelo ukuba kukuthintelwa komthetho nokuziphatha kulwabiwo lwenzuzo kubanini okanye kubanini zabelo olwahlula ngokungenzi nzuzo “kumashishini enzuzo, okanye amashishini orhwebo. Ixesha elichanekileyo lokuchaza uninzi lwemibutho engenzi nzuzo 'ayenzeli-ngeniso', endaweni yokuba 'lingenzi nzuzo', kwaye oku kuhlala kusetyenziswa kumthetho nakwimibhalo.

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo ngokubanzi ayisebenzi ukwenza ingeniso, uphawu oluchaza loo mibutho. Nangona kunjalo, umbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo unokwamkela, ubambe kwaye uhlawule imali kunye nezinye izinto zexabiso, kwaye unokuthengisa ngokusemthethweni nangokuziphatha kwinzuzo, ukuba isibonelelo sokuba nayiphi na inzuzo eyenziweyo iyakusetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili injongo, injongo okanye injongo ithobela. Ubungakanani enokuthi ivelise ingeniso bunokuthinteleka, okanye ukusetyenziswa kwezi nzuzo kunokuthintelwa. Ukungenzi nzuzo ke kuxhaswa ngezimali ngamashishini abucala okanye kurhulumente, kwaye bahlala benesimo sokungahlawuliswa rhafu. Iminikelo yabucala ngamanye amaxesha inokutsalwa kwirhafu.

Ukongeza, umbutho ongenzi nzuzo unokuba namalungu ngokuchasene nabanini zabelo.

Iinjongo neMishini yeZiko elingenziNzuzo

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo okanye imibutho ihlala isisa okanye yimibutho yeenkonzo; Banokulungelelaniswa njengombutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo okanye njengetrasti, umanyano lwentsebenziswano, okanye basenokungabi sesikweni. Ngamanye amaxesha abizwa ngokuba ziziseko, okanye izibonelelo ezineemali ezinkulu zesitokhwe. Uninzi lweziseko zinika izibonelelo eminye imibutho engenzi nzuzo, okanye ubudlelwane ebantwini. Nangona kunjalo, igama leziseko linokusetyenziselwa nayiphi na inkampani engenzi nzuzo-nkqu nemibutho yamavolontiya okanye amaqela engcambu

Ingenzi-nzuzo inokuba liqela elilungelelaniswe ngokukhululekileyo, njengombutho webhloko okanye umbutho wabasebenzi, okanye isenokuba sisakhiwo esimbaxa njengeyunivesithi, isibhedlele, inkampani yemiboniso bhanya-bhanya okanye umpapashi wencwadi yemfundo.

Kumazwe amaninzi asebenzisa umthetho waseJamani okanye waseNordic (umzekelo, iJamani, iSweden, iFinland), imibutho engenzi nzuzo yimibutho yokuzithandela, nangona eminye inezinto ezihlanganisiweyo (umz. Imibutho yezindlu). Umbutho wokuzithandela uhlala usekwe kumgaqo-voti womntu-ivoti enye. Umbutho omkhulu, obanzi kwilizwe liphela uhlala uququzelelwe njengeligi: inqanaba lendawo linomdibaniso wedolophu- okanye wedolophu kunye nobulungu bomntu wendalo, le mibutho ingamalungu ombutho wesizwe. Oku kubonwa njengokufezekisa ukuzimela okuphezulu kwinqanaba lendawo, ngelixa kukhuselwa iqumrhu ngokubanzi kubundlobongela bezomthetho okanye bezemali zalo naliphi na iqumrhu. Umbutho weligi (umz. Umbutho wabasebenzi okanye iqela) kunokuba nzima kakhulu. Kukho imithetho eyahlukeneyo elawula imibutho yesiqhelo, "enomdla" (nantoni na ukusuka kwiklabhu yezemidlalo ukuya kwimanyano yabasebenzi), amaqela ezopolitiko kunye namahlelo enkolo, ethintela uhlobo ngalunye lombutho kwindawo ayikhethileyo.

Iindidi zemibutho engajonganga kwenza nzuzo

Zimbini iintlobo zeenkampani ezingenzi nzuzo: imibutho yobulungu kunye nemibutho yesisa. Kuyimfuneko ukwahlula phakathi kwezi ndidi zimbini kuba uxanduva ngalunye luyahluka.

Umbutho wobulungu uqhuba ngemisebenzi ebaluleke kakhulu ukulungiselela amalungu ayo. Ixhaswa ngamalungu ayo ngentlawulo, iminikelo, iimali mboleko okanye nayiphi na indibaniselwano yezi. Imizekelo yemibutho yobulungu ziiklabhu zegalufa, iiklabhu zentlalo, imibutho enomdla okhethekileyo, ukukhathalela abantwana, njl.

Umbutho wesisa uqhuba ngemisebenzi ejolise ikakhulu kuluntu. Inokucela umnikelo kuluntu, ifumane izibonelelo zikarhulumente ezingaphezulu kwe-10% yengeniso yayo yonyaka okanye ibhalise njengesisa ngaphakathi kwentsingiselo yoMthetho weRhafu yeNgeniso.

Khumbula, zombini ezi ntlobo zamashishini zinamalungu. Umbutho awunguye umbutho wobulungu kuba unamalungu; Umbutho wesisa unamalungu nawo. Amalungu alo naliphi na iqumrhu elingenzi nzuzo, ubulungu okanye isisa, banesimo esifana neso sabanini zabelo kumbutho weshishini, kwaye bahlala behlawulwa.

Umahluko ophambili phakathi kombutho wobulungu kunye nombutho wesisa zezi:

  • ngubani oxhamlayo kwimisebenzi (amalungu okanye uluntu);
  • oxhasa umbutho ngezemali; kwaye
  • Intsalela isasazwa njani xa kuchithwa

Imiba yezomthetho ekufuneka uyiqwalasele

Uninzi lwamazwe anemithetho elawula ukusekwa, ulwakhiwo kunye nolawulo lweshishini elingenzi nzuzo. Kukwanjalo nakwamanye amazwe ahlukeneyo: uninzi lunemithetho elawula ukusekwa kunye nolawulo lwemibutho engenzi nzuzo, kwaye efuna ukuthotyelwa koorhulumente bolawulo. Uninzi lwemibutho emikhulu kulindeleke ukuba ipapashe iingxelo zayo zemali ezichaza ingeniso nenkcitho yabo kuluntu. Nangona zifana kakhulu neshishini, okanye ukwenza inzuzo, izinto, zinokwahluka ngokwamanqanaba abaluleke kakhulu. Zombini izinto ezingenzi nzuzo kunye nezo zenzuzo kufuneka zibe namalungu ebhodi, amalungu ekomiti elawulayo, okanye iitrasti ezityala umbutho uxanduva lokunyaniseka nokuthembeka. Ukwahlula okubalulekileyo koku kubandakanya iicawe, ekungafuneki ukuba zichaze nabani na ngemali, nditsho namalungu ayo ukuba iinkokheli zikhetha oko.

Uwenza njani umbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo

E-United States, imibutho engenzi nzuzo ihlala yenziwe ngokubandakanya urhulumente apho balindele ukwenza ishishini. Isenzo sokubandakanya sidala iqumrhu elisemthethweni elahlukileyo elenza ukuba umbutho uphathwe njengequmrhu phantsi komthetho kwaye ungene kwizivumelwano zeshishini, wenze iikhontrakthi, kunye nepropathi yakho njengaye nawuphi na umntu okanye iqumrhu elenzelwa inzuzo.

Njengomgangatho oqhelekileyo, umbutho wenzuzo, ezingenzi nzuzo zinokuba namalungu nangona uninzi lungenalo. Ukungenzi nzuzo kunokuba yitrasti okanye umbutho wamalungu, kwaye umbutho unokulawulwa ngamalungu awo anyula iBhodi yaBalawuli okanye iBhodi yeTrasti. Ukungenzi nzuzo kunokuba nesakhelo sabathunywa esivumela ukumelwa kwamaqela okanye imibutho njengamalungu. Ngenye indlela, isenokuba ngumbutho ongengowobulungu kwaye ibhodi yabalawuli inokuzikhethela eyayo indlalifa.

Umahluko ophambili phakathi kwenhlangano engenzi nzuzo kunye nequmrhu elenzelwa inzuzo kukuba into engenzi nzuzo ayikhuphi sitokhwe okanye ihlawule izabelo, (umzekelo, iKhowudi ye-Commonwealth yaseVirginia ibandakanya i-Non-Stock Corporation Act esetyenziselwa ukudibanisa izinto ezingenzi nzuzo) kwaye ayinakubacebisa abalawuli bayo. Nangona kunjalo, njengamashishini enzuzo, engenzi nzuzo isenokuba nabasebenzi kwaye inokubahlawulisa abalawuli bayo ngaphakathi kwemida efanelekileyo- kodwa ezi kufuneka, njengoko kunjalo kwimibutho eyenza inzuzo, zibhalwe ngokuchanekileyo kwaye zigcinwa kwimizuzu yobumbano okanye irekhodi lokudibana.

Imeko yokuXolelwa kwiRhafu

Kumazwe amaninzi, iingeniso ezingenzi nzuzo zinokufaka isicelo sokuxolelwa ekuhlawuleni irhafu, ukuze abanikeli bezemali babange ibuyile nayiphi na irhafu yengeniso ehlawulwe kwiminikelo kwaye umbutho ngokwawo ungaxolelwa kwirhafu yengeniso. E-United States, emva kokuba umbutho osemthethweni sele wenziwe kwinqanaba likarhulumente, kulisiko ukuba umbutho ongenzi nzuzo ufune ukukhululwa kwirhafu ngokubhekisele kwirhafu yengeniso. Oko kwenziwa ngokufaka isicelo kwiNkonzo yangaphakathi yeNgeniso (IRS). I-IRS, emva kokuphonononga isicelo sokuqinisekisa ukuba injongo yombutho iyahlangabezana neemeko zokwamkelwa njengombutho oxolelwe ukuhlawula irhafu (njenge-charity), ikhupha ileta egunyazisayo engenzi nzuzo eyinika imeko yokungaxoleli rhafu ngeenjongo zerhafu yengeniso. Ukuxolelwa akusebenzi kwezinye iirhafu zaseburhulumenteni ezinjengeerhafu zengqesho.

Imiba ejongene nokuNgenzi nzuzo

Inkxaso yokuSebenza okusebenzayo yingxaki eqhubekayo ejongene nokungenzi nzuzo exhomekeke kwinkxaso mali yangaphandle ukugcina ukusebenza kwabo, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuba imibutho engenzi nzuzo inolawulo oluncinci kwimithombo yabo yengeniso. Ngokwandayo eUnited States, uninzi olungenzi nzuzo luxhomekeke kwimali karhulumente yokuxhasa imisebenzi yabo, rhoqo ngezibonelelo, iikhontrakthi, okanye inkxaso-mali esekwe ngabathengi, ezinje ngeevawutsha okanye iikhredithi zerhafu. Uhlobo lwengeniso lubaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kunye nakwinkampani engenzi nzuzo njengoko inefuthe ekuthembekeni okanye ekuqikelelekeni apho umbutho unokuqesha kwaye ugcine abasebenzi, ugcine amaziko, okanye wenze iinkqubo.

Imizekelo engeyiyo yeNzuzo

Eyona mibutho mikhulu kunye neyona inempumelelo kwihlabathi liphela ifumaneka apha e-United States: I-Bill kunye ne-Melinda Gates Foundation, kunye ne-Howard Hughes Medical Foundation, nganye yazo inikezela nge-27 yezigidigidi zeedola kunye ne-11 yezigidigidi ngokulandelelana. I-United Kingdom iza kwisibini esomeleleyo kunye neBritish Welcome Trust, eyaziwa njenge "charity" n ukusetyenziswa kweBritani kunye nesigama. Kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba olu thelekiso alubandakanyi iiYunivesithi, uninzi lwazo olwenziwe njengemibutho engenzi nzuzo kwaye ezinye zixabisa ngaphezulu kwamashumi ezigidi zeedola.

Ukukhankanywa njengemizekelo engezantsi zimbalwa ezaziwa kakhulu, kwaye kwiimeko ezininzi, imibutho ehlonitshwayo, imibutho engenzi nzuzo kunye nemibutho:

  • Amnesty International
  • I-Business Business Bureau
  • Abazalwana Abakhulu Oodade Abakhulu baseMelika
  • Amakhwenkwe aseMelika
  • Iziko leCato
  • UmntwanaVoice wamanye amazwe
  • GlobalGiving
  • I-GGIP
  • Ulondolozo lwendalo
  • PBS
  • OMvulo
  • Isiseko seRotary
  • IiOlimpiki ezikhethekileyo
  • UNESCO
  • Amazwi Abafazi. Ukuvota kwabafazi
  • INgxowa-mali yeWorld Wildlife (WWF) *
  • YMCA

* (Ityala elaziwa kakhulu lophawu lwentengiso / ukophula amagama eqela elibandakanya iNgxowa-mali yeWorld Wildlife kunye neWorld Wrestling Federation (eyayisakuba ngumbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo kunye neyokugqibela ishishini elenzelwa inzuzo) kukhokelele ekulahlekelweni kwamalungelo kwigama " I-WWF ”yi-World Wrestling Federation- sele belitshintshile igama labo elifinyeziweyo laba ngu" WWE ")

Ukongeza, kukwakho nezigidi zemibutho encinci engenzi nzuzo ebonelela ngeenkonzo zentlalo okanye ubugcisa kubantu kwihlabathi liphela. Kukho ngaphezulu kwe-1.6 yezigidi engenzi nzuzo e-United States kuphela. Ngakumbi jonga amanqaku e-Wikipedia kwimibutho engenzi nzuzo

Okungenzi nzuzo kwi-Intanethi

Uninzi lweenkampani ezingenzi nzuzo okanye imibutho isebenzisa i ".org" kwinqanaba elisezantsi kwinqanaba lesikhundla xa ukhetha igama lesizinda ukwahlula ngokwabo kwizinto ezijolise kwezorhwebo ezisebenzisa isimamiso se ".com" okanye indawo. Kwiindidi zommandla wesintu njengoko kuchaziwe kwi-RFC 1591, ".org" ikhankanywe njengeyasetyenziselwa "imibutho engalinganiyo kwenye indawo" kwinkqubo yokuqamba amagama, ethi nangona ingacacanga, ibonakalisa ukuba loludidi olufanelekileyo -ikarhulumente, imibutho engekho kurhwebo. Ayichongwanga ngokukodwa kwimibutho yesisa okanye nakowuphi na umbutho okanye imeko yomthetho werhafu, nangona kunjalo; Ibandakanya nantoni na engangeni kwelinye inqanaba. Okwangoku, akukho miqobo inyanzeliswayo kubhaliso lwe ".com" okanye ".org," ukuze ufumane imibutho yazo zonke iintlobo nakweyiphi na le mimandla, kunye neminye imimandla ekumgangatho ophezulu kubandakanya emitsha, ngakumbi ethe ngqo enokuthi zilungele iintlobo ezithile zemibutho efana nemyuziyam kwiimyuziyam. Imibutho inokuphinda ibhalise phantsi kwekhowudi yelizwe efanelekileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe labo. Ngaphandle kwalo mgaqo we-ad hoc, kubalulekile ekubonakaleni kokungenzi nzuzo ukuba banamathela kwindibano emisela ngokukhawuleza kwaye basebenzise indawo ".org" yenqanaba eliphezulu.

Imibutho enemigangatho yasekhaya, yengingqi, okanye yesizwe inokubanika iidilesi zedomain kwisakhiwo esime kwinqanaba eliphezulu, njengecalifornia.example.org yesahluko sombuso waseCalifornia, kunye nesanjose.california.example.org kwiqela leSan Jose ngaphakathi kwisahluko saseCalifornia. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko izahluko zengingqi zibhalisa imimandla eyahlukeneyo enje nge-sanjoseexample.org, enokuvelisa ukungangqinelani kubume begama; ukuba abaququzeleli amagama abo, esinye isahluko sinokufumana igama elingahambelaniyo njenge-example-sanfrancisco.org.

Ngaba kufuneka ndiwuqale umbutho ongenzi nzuzo?

Ukuba uzimisele ukuba ishishini lakho liqhube imisebenzi kunye nokuthengiselana ngeenjongo ezingezizo ezemali njengelungu, ngelixa kwangaxeshanye ukubonelela ngokukhusela iiasethi kunye noxanduva olulinganiselweyo kumbutho oqhelekileyo, emva koko i-Non-Profit Corporation iyavakala kuwe. Khumbula ukuba ngelixa engenzi nzuzo inokuqesha abasebenzi kwaye ihlawule uMongameli okanye uMlawuli oLawulayo umvuzo ofanelekileyo, ayisiyoshishini lokurhweba kwaye akunakubakho mali okanye izibonelelo kumalungu.