Uqala njani uMbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo / iQumrhu - Inkcazo kunye neMizekelo

Ukuqala kweshishini kunye neenkonzo zokukhusela iiasethi zobuqu.

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Uqala njani uMbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo / iQumrhu - Inkcazo kunye neMizekelo

Umbutho ongenaNzuzo

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo zenziwe ngeenjongo zokuqhuba imisebenzi kunye nentengiselwano ngeenjongo ezizezinye ngaphandle kwenzuzo yesabelo mali, ngelixa kwangaxeshanye zibonelela ngokukhuselwa kweeasethi ezifanayo kunye namatyala asisigxina enkampani esemgangathweni. Umbutho ongenzi nzuzo unokwenza inzuzo, kodwa le nzuzo kufuneka isetyenziswe ngokungqongqo ukuhambisa iinjongo kunokubonelela ngeniso efunyenweyo (ngendlela yokwahlulahlula) kubanini-zabelo bayo. Iyaqondwa into yokuba uninzi lwentengiselwano kunye nemisebenzi yeZiko elingenzi nzuzo aliyi kuthengiswa ngokwemvelo.

Iindidi zoMbutho ongenzi ngeniso

Umbutho ongenzi nzuzo ohlelwe phantsi kwe-501 (c) 3 yeKhowudi yeRhafu yangaphakathi kufuneka iwele kwelinye okanye ngaphezulu kolu luhlu lulandelayo:

Thelekisa ukungafumani nzuzo kunye nemibutho yeenjongo

Uninzi lweengcali luthathela ingqalelo ukuba luthintelo olusemthethweni nolusemthethweni ekuhanjisweni kweenzuzo kubanini okanye kubanini zabelo okwahlula ngokungafaniyo inzuzo “yenzuzo, okanye amashishini orhwebo. Igama elichanekileyo elichaza uninzi lwemibutho engenzi nzuzo 'ayibenzeli nzuzo', endaweni yokuba 'ayinzi nzuzo', kwaye oku kuhlala kusetyenziswa kwimithetho nakwizicatshulwa.

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo ngokubanzi ayisebenzi ukuvelisa inzuzo, uphawu oluchaza imibutho enjalo. Nangona kunjalo, umbutho ongajonganga nzuzo unokwamkela, ubambe kwaye usasaze imali kunye nezinye izinto zexabiso, kwaye unokurhweba ngokusemthethweni nangokuziphatha ngentsebenzo, ngokuxhomekeka ekubeni umbono wokuba nayiphi na inzuzo eyenziweyo iya kusetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili isizathu, injongo okanye injongo. bambelela kwi. Ubungakanani bokuthi ingenise ingeniso inganyanzelwa, okanye ukusetyenziswa kwezo nzuzo kungavunyelwa. Ingeniso ke ngoko ihlala ixhaswa ngeminikelo evela kwicandelo labucala okanye likarhulumente, kwaye ihlala inemeko yokungaxolelwa kurhafu. Iminikelo yabucala ngamanye amaxesha inokuhlawulwa irhafu.

Ukongeza, umbutho ongenzi nzuzo unokuba namalungu ngokuchaseneyo nabaninizabelo.

Iinjongo kunye neMisebenzi yeZiko eliNgenzi ngeniso

Imibutho engenzi nzuzo okanye ookopopayi bahlala beyimibutho yesisa okanye yemibutho yenkonzo; banokulungelelaniswa njengenkampani engenzi nzuzo okanye njengetrasti, intsebenziswano, okanye basenokuba ngabangekho sesikweni. Ngamanye amaxesha abizwa ngokuba ziziseko, okanye izibonelelo ezinemali enkulu yesitokhwe. Uninzi lweziseko lunika izibonelelo kweminye imibutho engenzi nzuzo, okanye ubudlelwane nabantu. Nangona kunjalo, iziseko zegama zingasetyenziswa nayiphi na inkampani engenzi-ngeniso-kunye nemibutho yokuvolontiya okanye amaqela engcambu yengca.

Imali engenzi nzuzo inokuba liqela elilungelelaniswe kakhulu, njengeqonga lombutho okanye umbutho wabasebenzi, okanye inokuba yinto eyinkimbinkimbi efana neyunivesithi, isibhedlele, inkampani yokuvelisa iifilimu okanye umshicileli wencwadi.

Kumazwe amaninzi kusetyenziswa umthetho waseJamani okanye waseNordic (umz. IJamani, iSweden, iFinland), imibutho engenzi nzuzo ixhaphakileyo yimibutho yokuzithandela, nangona abanye benesakhiwo (umzkl amaziko ezorhwebo). Umbutho wokuzithandela udla ngokusekwe kumgaqo-siseko umntu omnye-umntu. Umbutho omkhulu, kwilizwe liphela uhlala ulungelelaniswa njengeqela: inqanaba lendawo inedolophu- okanye inqanaba lomanyano kwinqanaba lobulungu bendalo, le mibutho ingamalungu ombutho wesizwe. Oku kubonwa njengokufezekisa ukuzimela okwandisiweyo kwinqanaba lengingqi, ngelixa kusakhuselwa ubumbano ngokubanzi kwezomthetho okanye kwezemali kulo naliphi na umbutho omnye. Umbutho wamanqindi anje (umz. Umbutho wabasebenzi okanye iqela) unokuba nzima kakhulu. Kukho rhoqo imithetho eyahlukeneyo elawula imibutho eqhelekileyo, “efanelekileyo” (nantoni na esuka kwiklabhu yezemidlalo iye kwimanyano yabasebenzi), amaqela ezopolitiko namahlelo ezenkolo, ethintela uhlobo ngalunye lombutho kwicandelo lakhe.

Iindidi zemibutho engenzi nzuzo

Zimbini iintlobo zemibutho engenzi nzuzo: Ubulungu kwimibutho elawulayo kunye nemibutho yabasebenzi abanyusayo. Kuyimfuneko ukwahlula phakathi kwezi ntlobo zimbini kuba uxanduva lwento nganye luyahluka.

Umbutho wobulungu uqhuba kwizinto ezenzelwa ukunceda amalungu alo. Ixhaswa ngamalungu ayo ngemirhumo, iminikelo, imboleko-mali okanye nayiphi na indibaniselwano yezi. Imizekelo yemibutho yobulungu ziiklabhu zegalofu, iiklabhu zentlalo, imibutho enomdla okhethekileyo, ukukhathalela imini, njl.

Umbutho wesisa uqhuba ngezinto ezifanele ukunceda uluntu. Ingacela imali eluntwini, ifumane izibonelelo zikarhulumente ezingaphezulu kwe-10% yengeniso yayo yonyaka okanye irejista njengenye yesisa ngaphakathi kwentsingiselo yoMthetho weRhafu yeNgeniso.

Khumbula, zombini iintlobo zeenkampani zinamalungu. Umbutho ayibobulungu bombutho ngenxa yokuba unamalungu; umbutho wesisa unamalungu nawo. Amalungu alo naliphi na iqumrhu elingenzi nzuzo, ubulungu okanye isisa, inqanaba elifanayo nelabanini bezabelo zeshishini, kwaye bahlala behlawulwa.

Umahluko ophambili phakathi kwequmrhu lobulungu kunye nequmrhu lokunceda yile:

  • Ngubani oxhamlayo kwimisebenzi (yamalungu okanye eluntwini);
  • oxhasa umbutho ngokwemali; kwaye
  • njani ukuba intsalela isasazwa njani ekuchithweni

Imicimbi yezomthetho emele iqwalaselwe

Uninzi lwamazwe lunemithetho elawula ukusekwa, ukwakhiwa, nolawulo lwamashishini angajonganga nzuzo. Kwenzeka into efanayo kumazwe ahlukeneyo: uninzi lunemithetho elawula ukusekwa nokulawulwa kwemibutho engenzi nzuzo, nefuna ukuthotyelwa kwemigaqo yolawulo lwendibaniselwano. Uninzi lwemibutho emikhulu kufuneka ipapashe iingxelo zayo zemali ezichaza umvuzo kunye nenkcitho eluntwini. Nangona ifana kakhulu neshishini, okanye ingeniso, izinto, ezinokwahluka ngokwamanqanaba abaluleke kakhulu. Zombini izinto ezingenzi nzuzo kunye nengeniso kufuneka zibenamalungu ebhodi, amalungu ekomiti elawulayo, okanye abo baphathiswe iitrasti abamele umbutho uxanduva lokunyaniseka nokuthembana. Umcimbi ophawuleka ngoku ubandakanya iicawe, ezihlala zingafuneki ukuba zichaze imali kuye nabani na, nkqu nakumalungu awo ukuba ubunkokeli bukhetha.

Uyenza njani Umbutho ongenaNzuzo

E-United States, imibutho engenzi nzuzo ihlala ibunjiwe ngokubandakanya ilizwe elilindele ukwenza ushishino. Isenzo sokubandakanyeka sidala into yezomthetho eyahlukileyo eyenza ukuba umbutho uphathwe njengombutho ophantsi komthetho kwaye ungene kwizivumelwano zeshishini, iifom zesivumelwano, kunye nepropathi yakho njengoko kungenziwa nangomnye umntu okanye iqumrhu lenzala.

Ininzi njengemigangatho, yombutho wenzuzo, engenzi-nzuzo inokuba namalungu nangona uninzi lungenzi. Inzuzo engenye isenokuba yitrasti okanye umbutho wamalungu, kwaye umbutho ungalawulwa ngamalungu akhe anyula iBhodi yabaLawuli okanye iBhodi yeTrasti. Iingeniso zinokuba nesakhiwo sokudlulisela igunya lokumelwa kwamaqela okanye imibutho njengamalungu. Ngokwahlukileyo, inokuba ngumbutho ongengobulungu kwaye ibhodi yabalawuli inokukhetha eyabalandelayo.

Umahluko ophambili phakathi kwenkampani engenzi nzuzo kunye nequmrhu lenzuzo kukuba i-non-nzuzo ayikhuphi isitokhwe okanye ihlawulwe, umzekelo, iKhowudi ye-Commonwealth yaseVirginia ibandakanya umThetho weNkampani yeZiko ekungekho nzuzo kulo osetyenziselwa ukufaka izinto ezingenzi nzuzo) kwaye akufuneki bacebise abalawuli bayo. Nangona kunjalo, njengenkampani eyenzela inzuzo, inzuzo engahlawulwayo isenokuba nabasebenzi kwaye inokubabuyisela abalawuli babo kwimida efanelekileyo-kodwa ezi kufuneka, njengoko kunjalo ngemibutho yenzuzo, ebhalwe ngokuchanekileyo kwaye igcinwe kwimizuzu yenkampani okanye irekhodi lenkampani.

Imeko yokuxolelwa kwirhafu

Kumazwe amaninzi, imali engenzi nzuzo inokufaka isicelo sokuxolelwa ekuhlawuleni irhafu, ukuze abanikezeli bemali babanga nayiphi na irhafu ebhatalwa kwiminikelo ukuze umbutho ngokwawo ukhululwe kwirhafu yengeniso. E-United States, emva kokuba iqumrhu elisemthethweni elamkelweyo labekwa kwinqanaba likarhulumente, kulisiko ukuba iqumrhu elingenzi nzuzo lifune ukungaxolelwa kwirhafu ngokubhekisele kurhafu yengeniso. Oko kwenziwa ngokufaka isicelo kwiNkonzo yeRhafu yangaphakathi (IRS). I-IRS, emva kokujongwa kwakhona kwesicelo sokuqinisekisa ukuba injongo yombutho iyahlangabezana neemeko ukuze zamkelwe njengombutho wokuxolelwa kwirhafu (njengesisa), ikhuphe incwadi egunyazisa ukungafumani nzuzo isinika imeko yokungahlawuliswa irhafu ngenxa yerhafu. Ukuxolelwa akusebenzi kwezinye iirhafu ze-Federal ezifana neerhafu zomsebenzi.

Imicimbi ejongene neNgenzi ngeniso

Inkxaso yeKhono lokuSebenza liyingxaki eqhubekayo ejongene nengenzi nzuzo exhomekeke kwinkxaso-mali yangaphandle ukugcina imisebenzi yabo, ubukhulu becala ngenxa yokuba imibutho engenzi nzuzo inolawulo oluncinci kwimithombo (yabo) yengeniso. Ukwanda eUnited States, uninzi lwezinto ezingenzi nzuzo lixhomekeke kurhulumente ukuze axhase imisebenzi yawo, rhoqo ngokusebenzisa izibonelelo, izivumelwano, okanye inkxaso-mali exhaswa ngabathengi, ezinjengeevawutsha okanye iirhafu zerhafu. Uhlobo lwengeniso lubaluleke kakhulu kubume nakubume bezinto ezingenzi nzuzo njengoko kuchaphazela ukuthembeka okanye ukuthembeka apho umbutho unokuqesha kwaye ugcine abasebenzi, ugcinise indawo yokusebenza, okanye wenze iinkqubo.

Imizekelo ephumelelayo yeZingeniso

Owona mbutho mkhulu nongaphumeleli nzuzo emhlabeni ufumaneka kanye e-United States: I-Bill kunye neMelinda Gates Foundation, kunye ne-Howard Hughes Medical Foundation, nganye imele ama- $ 27 billion kunye ne- $ 11 yezigidigidi, ngokwahlukeneyo. I-United Kingdom iza ngomzuzwana ngokuqinileyo kunye neBritish Welcome to Trust, eyaziwa ngokuba yi "charity" n Ukusetyenziswa kweBritane kunye nesigama. Kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba, ukuthelekisa oku akubandakanyi iiyunivesithi, uninzi lwazo ngokwazo luyilwe njengamashishini angenanzuzo kwaye ezinye zixabisa ngaphezulu kwamashumi ezigidi zeedola.

Iboniswe njengemizekelo engezantsi ezimbalwa zaziwa kakhulu, kwaye kwiimeko ezininzi, zihlonitshwe kakhulu, imibutho engenzi nzuzo kunye nemibutho:

  • Amnesty International
  • I-Business Business Bureau
  • Amakhulu aBakhulu ooDade abaKhulu baseMelika
  • Inkwenkwe Scouts yaseMelika
  • Iziko leCato
  • I-ChildVoice International
  • GlobalGiving
  • I-GGIP
  • Ulondolozo lwendalo
  • PBS
  • OMvulo
  • Isiseko seRotary
  • IOlimpiki ekhethekileyo
  • UNESCO
  • IiVideos zabasetyhini. IVoti yabafazi
  • Ingxowa-mali yeZilwanyana zasendle kwiHlabathi (WWF) *
  • YMCA

* (Ityala elaziwayo kakhulu lophawu lwentengiso / lolwaphulo-mthetho lwegama elibandakanyeka kwiNgxowa-mali Yezilwanyana Zasekhaya kunye neWorld Wrestling Federation (owayengumbutho ongenzi ngeniso kunye nelinye ishishini lokufumana inzuzo) wakhokelela ekuphulukaneni nenkundla yamalungelo ngenxa yegama elithi " I-WWF ”yiWorld Wrestling Federation-batshintshe igama lophawu lwabo olufinyeziweyo lwaba ngu" WWE ")

Ukongeza, kukwakho nezigidi zemibutho encinci engenzi nzuzo ebonelela ngeenkonzo zentlalo okanye ubugcisa kubantu kwihlabathi liphela. Kukho ngaphezulu kwe-1.6 yezigidi ezingenzi nzuzo eUnited States kuphela. Ukufumana ngakumbi amanqaku amanqaku eWikipedia kwimibutho engenzi nzuzo

Imali engenzi nzuzo kwi-Intanethi

Uninzi lwemibutho engenzi nzuzo okanye imibutho isebenzisa i- ".org" nqanaba eliphezulu lesizinda encamathisela xa ukhetha igama lesizinda ukuzahlulahlula kumaziko ajolise kurhwebo adla ngokusebenzisa i- ".com" incamathele okanye indawo. Kwiindidi zesizinda sendabuko njengoko kuphawuliwe kwi-RFC 1591, ".org" icatshulwe njengesetyenziselwa "imibutho engalungelanga ndawo yimbi" kwinkqubo yokuqamba amagama, ethi nangona ingacacanga, ichaze ukuba likudidi olufanelekileyo lokungahambelani -orhulumente, imibutho engekho phantsi korhwebo. Ayenzelwanga ngokukodwa imibutho yesisa okanye nayiphi na imeko yombutho okanye yomthetho werhafu, nangona kunjalo; ibandakanya nayiphi na into engawi kwelinye udidi. Okwangoku, akukho zithintelo zinyanzeliswayo ekubhalisweni kwe ".com" okanye ".org," ke ungafumana imibutho yazo zonke iintlobo kwezi ndawo, kunye neminye imihlaba ekumgangatho ophezulu kubandakanya ezitsha, ngakumbi ezikhethekileyo ezinokuthi Yanela iintlobo ezithile zemibutho enje .museum kwiimyuziyam. Imibutho inokubhalisa phantsi kwekhowudi yelizwe efanelekileyo yenqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe labo. Ngaphandle kwalomgaqo we-ad hoc, kubalulekile ekubonakaleni kwemali engeyiyo nzuzo ukuba babambelela kwindibano yokumisela ngokukhawuleza kwaye basebenzise indawo "yenqanaba eliphezulu."

Imibutho enezahluko zasekhaya, zengingqi, okanye zesizwe zinokubanika iidilesi zesiseko sendawo eyakhiwe kuyo, enjengecalifornia.example.org yesahluko saseCalifornia, kunye sanjose.california.example.org yeqela laseSan Jose ngaphakathi kwesahluko seCalifornia. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko izahluko zasekuhlaleni zibhalisa imimandla eyahlukeneyo enjenge sanjoseex samp.org, enokuthi ivelise ukungangqinelani kwisakhiwo sokuthiya amagama; Ukuba abalungelelanisi amagama abo, esinye sahluko sinokufumana igama elingangqinelaniyo njenge- example-sanfrancisco.org.

Ngaba kufuneka ndiqale umbutho ongajonganga nzuzo?

Ukuba ufuna ishishini lakho ukuba lenze imisebenzi kunye notshintshiselwano ngeenjongo ezingezizo izibonelelo zamalungu, ngelixa kwangaxeshanye ubonelela ngokhuseleko olufanayo lweempahla kunye namatyala asezantsi equmrhu eliqhelekileyo, ke iZiko elingeyiyo leNzala liyakwenza oko. Khumbula ukuba lo gama ingeniso ingenza abasebenzi kwaye bahlawulele uMongameli okanye uMlawuli oLawulayo umvuzo ofanelekileyo, ayisiyonjongo yentengiso kwaye akunakubakho zabelo okanye izabelo kumalungu.